( File 6)
The parameters to be met by proposed integrated energy supply systems for the UK to reduce UK CO2 emissions to 40% of 1990 Total CO2 emissions. ( i.e. a 60% reduction )
Assume that in 1990 1 / 3 of the total CO2 came from electricity generation. 1 / 4 from transport and the remainder from domestic, commercial and industrial heating.
a) Gas fired generation of electricity is very well entrenched with over 20 GW of modern plant that has to fulfill its economic working life to at least 2020, but dependence on gas must not exceed 50% of average electricity generation.
b) Nuclear generation of electricity is set to decline to 1GW by 2020 and there are no UK safety approved new plant designs or planning permissions available at present and no existing UK capacity to build nuclear power stations.
c) Peak electricity demand is met by existing coal-fired generating plant. The UK coal industry needs a market for 25 to 30 million tons of coal per year to remain a viable and secure source of energy.
d)The existing system currently meets an average power demand of 35GW and a peak power demand of 51GW with minimal voltage fluctuations and no power cuts since the miner's strike in 1974!
e) 1 GW of pumped storage electricity generation capacity is available for a few hours per day.
f) The 2 GW cross channel electricity connector to France cannot be relied upon in the longer term.
g) The proposed plan must provide average electricity generation of 40 GW and any future increases in demand for energy from electricity and meet peak electricity demand of average generation plus 15 GW.
2) The average demand for electrical energy is set to rise to 45 GW by 2010, 50 GW by 2020 and 55GW by 2030 unless offset by improved efficiency of electricity use.
UK Government policy is that energy supplies should be secure, economic
Recycling of materials can use more energy than using new materials. Energy
used for recycling must be carbon-neutral or carbon-free if recycling
is to contribute the maximum benefits for a sustainable world. Energy
for recycling will be included in the heat sector.
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LINKS TO FULL TEXT
|File 1||INTRODUCTION / SUMMARY|
|File 2||How to achieve a 60% reduction in UK CO2 emissions using renewable energy and hydrogen technology.|
|File 3||A pragmatic review of the likely reductions on the 1990 level of CO2 emissions that the UK electricity generating industry may be able to achieve by 2020 / 2030.|
|File 4||Maintaining the capacity to meet the peak demand for electricity from an integrated energy system incorporating significant variable renewable energy sources, while at the same time reducing average annual CO2 emissions. The continuing importance of coal.|
|File 5||Online feedback form / comments|
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